• Dr. Atif Hassan
  • Dr. Rizwana Bashir
  • Ms. Tooba Arshad
Keywords: Learning Engagement Scale, SEM, Psychometrics, Business Schools Pakistan


Current measures of Learning Engagement do not adequately capture overall perceptions of engagement of various stakeholders in the environment of business schools. A classified structure is proposed to capture dimensions important to business schools and learning engagement literatures. Learning engagement Scale (LES) is a composite construct that signifies the inclination of various stakeholders of the learning environment including students, teachers, Alumni, parents and industry. This study has adapted major portion of the scale from reliable international sources and also created a part of the LES through scientific methods. In this study, psychometric properties of the LES were examined on the data obtained from 498 respondents. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used for Psychometric analyses with reliability and validity estimations of the selected sample. Results showed notable convergent validity, factorial validity and internal consistency reliability, of the LES for business school samples.

Author Biographies

Dr. Atif Hassan

Professor, School of Business, Beaconhouse National University

Dr. Rizwana Bashir

Department of Management Sciences, Lahore Garrison University

Ms. Tooba Arshad

Lecturer, The University of Punjab, Jehlum Campus


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How to Cite
Hassan, D. A., Bashir, D. R., & Arshad, M. T. (2020). LEARNING ENGAGEMENT SCALE (LES): DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPOSITE MEASURE AND ANALYSIS OF PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES FOR BUSINESS SCHOOLS. Journal of Business Strategies, 14(2), 38-68. Retrieved from http://greenwichjournals.com/index.php/businessstudies/article/view/497