RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIGITAL SELF-HARM AND USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

  • Prof. Dr. Sabir Ahmed
  • Dr. Dev Raj
  • Sanam Tajjamul

Abstract

International studies proved that deliberated self-harm is the common problem including Pakistan. Students or youth get information from internet about ways of suicide and involve bullying their selves. Digital self-harm has become one of the major problematic issues in the digital era and getting attention of scholars globally. So that to keep in mind, the current study is the inclusive empirical investigation on digital self-harm was analysis among students In Karachi, Pakistan. Results are showing that majority of students uses social media site on daily bases. Around 35% participant admitted that they injured or scratched themselves. Results also suggested that 6.7% of respondents anonymously posted something online to get attention from parents or peers and 6.7% to test their peers’ friendship and 11.7% students were mentioned they posted violence related and 5.0% Hatred content on social media platforms. Finally, statistical tests did not find any significance associations between regular use of social media, deliberated and digital self-harm. It is recommended that in-depth research should conducted nationwide with large sample size in future research.

Author Biographies

Prof. Dr. Sabir Ahmed
Prof. Dr. Sabir Ahmed is working as HoD in the Department of Media, Art & Design, Greenwich University, Karachi. He has several research papers in his credit published into reputed national & international journals.
Dr. Dev Raj
Dr. Dev Raj is Assistant Professor in the Department of Humanities, Greenwich University, Karachi. He has expertise in South Asian History and contributed several papers including one book.
Sanam Tajjamul
Sanam Tajjamul is currently working in the Web Radio Lab of Greenwich University, Karachi. She is doing her PhD from Sindh Madressatul Islam University (SMIU) Karachi.

References

Bas, G. (2010). An Introduction of relationship between shyness and loneliness, levels of elementary students in Turkish sample. International Online Journal of Educational Science, 2(2), 419- 440.

Basch, S., & Damour, L. (2014). Girls and Digital technology. Internet, Laurel School’s Center for Research on Girls. http://www.laurelschool. org/uploaded/programs/crg/crg_downloads/CRG_DIGITAL_ TECHNOLOGY_.pdf

BBC Report. (2017). ‘Steep rise’ in self-harm among teenage girls. https:// www.bbc.com/news/health-41671060

Biddle, J. (2012). Study to explore suicide-related Internet use by young adults and the impact of this on suicidal behavior, Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. (Research proposal system, University of Bristol). https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/ full/10.1177/2055207616629862

Biernesser, C., Sewall, C.J.R., Brent, D., Bear, T., Mair, C., & Trauth, J. (2020). Social Media Use and Deliberate Self-Harm Among Youth. A Systematized Narrative Review. Child Youth Serv Rev. 116, 105054. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105054. Epub 2020 May 29. PMID: 32773916; PMCID: PMC7413131.

Birdsong, T. (2018). Study: Digital Self-Harm Among Teens Real; Here’s What Parents Need to Know. https://www.mcafee.com/blogs/ family-safety/study-digital-self-harm-among-teens-real-hereswhat-parents-need-to-know/

Boyd, D. (2010). Digital Self-Harm and Other Acts of Self-Harassment. https://www.zephoria.org/thoughts/archives/2010/12/07/digital-self-harm-and-other-acts-of-self-harassment.html

Boyd, D., Ryan, J., & Leavitt, A. (2010). Pro-Self-Harm and the Visibility of Youth Generated Problematic Content. Journal of Law and Policy, 7(1), 1-32.

Brack, K., & Caltabiano, N. (2014). Cyberbullying and self-esteem in Australian adults. Cyberpsychology. Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 8(2), Article 7. https://doi.org/10.5817/ CP2014-2-7

Bucholtz, M. (2002). Youth and Cultural Practice. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31, 525-552. Butt, S. (2020). Cyber harassment cases double in a year, Internet usage in country up 200% during pandemic. Express Tribune. https://tribune. com.pk/story/2274414/cyber-harassment-cases-double-in-a-year

Cacilappo et al. (2009). Here is the crowd: the structure of Spread of Loneliness in a large social network. Journal of Personality and social Psychology, 97(6), 977-991.

Carolina, A., & Klein, M.D. (2012). Live Deaths Online: Internet Suicide and Lethality. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry, and the Law, 40, 530-536.

Chancellor, S., Pater, J. A., Clear, T. A., Gilbert, E., & De Choudhury, M. (2016, February). # thyghg app: Instagram Content Moderation and Lexical Variation in Pro-Eating Disorder Communities. In Proceedings of the 19th ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing (pp. 1199-1211). ACM.

Chau, C. (2010). YouTube as a Participating Culture, New direction for Youth, Development, No. 128. Wiley periodicals Inc. 65-71. doi: 10 1002/xd.376.

Chou et al. (2012). “They are happier and having better lives than I am”: The impact of using Facebook on perceptions of others’ lives. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking. doi:10.1089/ cyber.2011.0324.

Claes, L., & Vandereycken, W. (2007). The Self-Injury Questionnaire-Treatment Related (SIQ-TR): Construction, reliability, and validity in a sample of female eating disorder patients. In P.M. Goldfarb (Ed.), Psychological Tests and Testing Research Trends (pp. 111- 139). New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Dad, N., & Khan, S. (2017). Naila Rind killed herself because Pakistan’s cybercrime laws failed. Daily Dawn. https://www.dawn.com/ news/1306976

Daine, K., Hawton, K., Singaravelu, V., Stewart, A., Simkin, S. et al. (2013). The Power of the Web: A Systematic Review of Studies of the Influence of the Internet on Self-Harm and Suicide in Young People. PLo S ONE 8(10), e77555. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077555

Deters, F.G., & Mehl, M.R. (2012). Does Posting Facebook status Updates increased or decreased Loneliness? An Online Social Networking Experiment. Journal of Social psychology and Personality Sciences, 1(1), 1-8.

Durkee, T., Hadlaczky, G., & Westerlund, M.C.V. (2011). Internet pathways in suicidality: A review of the evidence. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8, 3938-3952.

Englander, E. (2012). Digital Self-Harm: Frequency, Type, Motivations, and Outcomes. MARC Research Reports. Paper 5. http://vc.bridgew. edu/marc_reports/5

Foster, A. (2021). The prevalence of digital self-harm among adolescents. https://www.nationalelfservice.net/mental-health/self-harm/the-prevalence-of-digital-self-harm-among-adolescents/

Fraga, J. (2018). When Teens Cyberbully Themselves, Shots. Health News from NPR. https://www.npr.org/ Sections/Health-Shots /2018/04/21/604073315/When-Teens-Cyberbully themselves

Funnell, N. (2013). Digital self-harm: teens tap out an online cry for help. The Sunday Morning Herald. https://www.smh.com.au/opinion/ digital-self-harm-teens-tap-out-an-online-cry-for-help-20130819- 2s7av.html

Francis, T., & Hoefel, F. (2021). ‘True Gen’: Generation Z and its implications for companies. https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/consumer-packaged-goods/our-insights/true-gen-generation-z-and-its-implications-for-companies

Gilbert, P. (2009). The Compassionate mind. London: Constable and Robinson Ltd.

Gregoire, C. (2015). Heavy Social Media Use Linked with Mental Health Issues in Teens, more than two hours of use per day can spell trouble. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/social-media-mental-health_55b129d9e4b08f57d5d3eedf

Hetrick, S. E., Serasinghe, A., Anglin, K., Hart, L., Morgan, A., & Robinson, J. (2020). Understanding the Needs of Young People Who Engage in Self-Harm: A Qualitative Investigation. Front Psychol., 10(10), 2916. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02916. PMID: 31998182; PMCID: PMC6968776.

Hoge et al. (2017). Digital media, anxiety, and depression in children. Pediatrics. doi:10.1542/peds.2016-1758G.

Husain, N., Barbara, T., & Hamirani, M. (2014). Brief psychological intervention after self-harm: Randomized controlled trial from Pakistan. The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science, 20(4), 1-9. DOI:10.1192/bjp.bp.113.138370

Jain et al. (2012). Impact of Social Networking Sites in The Changing Mind Set of Youth on Social Issues: A Study of Delhi. NCR Youth Journal of Arts, Science and Commerce, 2(2), 1-5.

Janis, W., Wendy, L., & Karen, C. (2007). The Internet and self-injury: What psychotherapists should know. Journal of Clinical Psychology,7(1).

Jarret, C. (2013). What are teens hoping to feel when they self-harm? Research Digest. https://digest.bps.org.uk/2013/12/17/what-are-teens-hoping-to-feel-when-they-self-harm/

John, A., Glendenning, A.C., Marchant, A., Montgomery, P., Stewart, A., Wood, S., Lloyd, K., & Hawton, K. (2018). Self-Harm, Suicidal Behaviors, and Cyberbullying in Children and Young People. Systematic Review, 20(4), e129.

Jun, J., & Kim, M. (2017). What Accounts for the Relationship Between Internet Use and Suicidal Ideation of Korean Older Adults? A Mediation Analysis. Journals of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 72(5), 846-855.

Kanwal, H., & Jami, H. (2019). Exploring Modes, Strategies, and Psychosocial Consequences of Cyberbullying Perpetration and Victimization Among University Students. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 34(4), 787-817. https://doi.org/10.33824/ PJPR.2019.34.4.43

Keles, B., & Grealish, A. (2020). A systematic review: the influence of social media on depression, anxiety and psychological distress in adolescents. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 25 (1), 79-93. DOI: 10.1080/02673843.2019.1590851 Kemp, C. (2017). Digital self-harm a growing phenomenon. APP News & Journal.

https://www.aappublications.org/news/2017/12/14/ DigitalHarm121417

Kim, K., Ryu, E., Chon, M.Y., Yeun, E-J., Choi, S-Y., Seo, J-S., & Nam, B-W. (2006). Internet addiction in Korean adolescents and its relation to depression and suicidal ideation: a questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 43(2), 185-92.

Kraftl, P. (eds). (n.d.). Children’s Emotions in Policy and Practice. Studies in Childhood and Youth. London: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi. org/10.1057/9781137415608_9

Kross, E., Verduyn, P., Demiralp, E., Park, J., & Lee, D.S. (2013). Facebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults. PLoS ONE 8(8), e69841. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069841.

Kusuma, A. (2020). Impact of Social Media on Youth. https://www. researchgate.net/publication/347437746_Impact_of_Social_ Media_on_Youth/citation/download

Kyung, N., Lim, S., & Lee, B. (2021). Digital self-harm: an empirical analysis of the effects of broadband adoption on suicide. Internet Research, 31(4), 1444-1462.

Labrague, L.J. (2014). Face book use and adolescent emotional states of depression, anxiety and stress. Health Science Journal, 8(1), 80-89.

Luxton, D., June, J. D., & Fairall, M. (2012). Social Media and Suicide: A Public Health Perspective. American Journal of Public Health, 102(52), 195-200.

MacAfee. (2010). What Do You Really Know about Yours Teen’s Online Lives, The Secret Online Lives of Teens. Santa Clara, CA: MacAfee, Inc. 1-10. www.

Mcafee.com Macey, A. (2018). This is the Most Shocking Form of Cyberbullying Currently Affecting Teenagers. https://www.brit.co/digital-self-harm-cyberbulling-teenagers

Maggiani, R. (2012). Social Media and its Effects on Communication. Solari Communication, position paper (www.solan.net).

Malik, A.A. (2003). Shyness and is relation to loneliness and depression. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities. 108-115.

Maloney, J., Pfuhlmann, B., Arensman, E., Coffey, C., Gusmão, R., & Poštuvan, V. (2014). How to Adjust Media Recommendations on Reporting Suicidal Behavior to New Media Developments. Arch Suicide Res, 18, 156–69.

Marchant, A., Hawton, K., Burns, L., Stewart, A., & John, A. (2021). Impact of Web-Based Sharing and Viewing of Self-Harm-Related Videos and Photographs on Young People: Systematic Review. J Med Internet, 23(3), e18048. doi: 10.2196/18048. PMID: 33739289; PMCID: PMC8074996.

McCrindle. (2015). Gen Z and Gen Alpha Infographic Update. McCrindle.

McKenna, K. Y. A., & Bargh, J. A. (2000). Plan 9 from cyberspace: The implications of the Internet for personality and social psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4, 57–75.

Media Awareness Network. (2005). Youth online and at-Risk Radiation Facilitated by the Internet. Royal Canadian Mounted police, 7.

Meldrum, R., Patchin, J., Young, J., & Hinduja, S. (2020). Bullying victimization, negative emotions, and digital self-harm: Testing a theoretical model of indirect effects. Deviant Behavior, 1-19. doi:1 0.1080/01639625.2020.1833380.

Memon, A.M., Sharma, S.G., Mohite, S.S., & Jain, S. (2018). The role of online social networking on deliberate self-harm and suicidality in adolescents: A systematized review of literature. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 60, 384. https://doi.org/10.4103/psychiatry. IndianJPsychiatry_414_17

Nilsson, M. G, Pepelasis, T., & Ioannou, M. (2019). Understanding the link between Sextortion and Suicide. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 13(1), 55–69. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3402357

Montgonery et al. (2004). Youth as E-citizens: Engaging the Digital Generation. Center for Social Media, School of Communication (ASOC), American University. www.centerforsocialmedia.org/ eatzans/youth report.pdf

Moreno, M.A., Ton, E. T., Selkie, E.Y., & Evans, Y. (2015). Secret Society 123: Understanding the Language of Self-Harm on Instagram. Journal of Adolescent Health, 58(1), 78–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jadohealth.2015.09.015

Myklestad, I., & Straiton, M. (2021). The relationship between self-harm and bullying behavior: Results from a population based study of adolescents. BMC Public Health, 21, 524. https://doi.org/10.1186/ s12889-021-10555-9

National Centre for Rural Development (NCRD). (2006). Country Report on Youth in Development - Pakistan 2005-06. National Centre for Rural Development (NCRD), Ministry of Education & Trainings Government of Pakistan.

Nixon, C.L. (2014). Current perspectives: The impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health. Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, 5, 143–158. http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AHMT.S36456

Oksanen, A., Näsi, M., Minkkinen, J., Keipi, T., Kaakinen, M., & Räsänen, P. (2016). Young people who access harm-advocating online content: A four-country survey. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 10(2), Article 6. https://doi.org/10.5817/ CP2016-2-6

Ong et al. (2020). Association of cyberbullying with psychosocial difficulties, self-harm and helping-seeking behaviors: a cross section study in Singapore adolescents. Research Square, https://www. researchsquare.com/article/rs-10995/v1

Pacheco, E., Melhuish, N., & Jandy, F.J. (2019). Digital Self-Harm: Prevalence, Motivations and Outcomes for Teens Who Cyberbully Themselves Prepared. Digital Self-Harm Report. Netsafe, Providing free online safety advice in New Zealand.

Paiman, A., Khan, M., Ali, T., Asad, N., & Iqbal, A. (2019). Psychosocial factors of deliberate self-harm in Afghanistan: a hospital based, matched case-control study. East Mediterranean Health Journal, 25(11), 798–805. https://doi.org/10.26719/emhj.19.021

Patchin, W., & Hinduja, S. (2017). Digital Self-Harm Among Adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 61(6), 761-766.

Patchin, W. J., & Hinduja, S. (2020). Sextortion Among Adolescents: Results from a National Survey of U.S. Youth. Sexual Abuse, 32(1), 30–54.

Pater, J., & Mynatt, E. (2017). Defining Digital Self-Harm. In Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (pp. 1501-1513). ACM.

Patton, D., Hong, J., Ranney, M., Patel, S., Kelley, C., Eschmann, R., & Washington, T. (2014). Social media as a vector for youth violence: A review of the literature. Computers in Human Behavior, 35, 548- 553. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2014.02.043

Pew Research Center. (2018). Teens, Social Media, and Technology. https:// www.pewresearch.org/internet/2018/05/31/teens-social-media-technology-2018/PMC8074996.

Marhana, A., Sa˘ucana, D., Popaa, C., & Danciua, B. (2012). Searching Internet: A Report on Accessibility, Nature, and Quality of Suicide-Related Information. Social and Behavioral Sciences 33, 373–377.

Preece, T. (2015). Social Suicide: A Digital Context for Self-Harm and Suicidal Ideation. In Blazek M. and Kraftl P. (eds) Children’s Emotions in Policy and Practice. Studies in Childhood and Youth. London: Palgrave Macmillan, https://doi.org/10.1057/97811374156089

Purington, A., & Whitlock, J. (2010). Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in the Media. The Prevention Researcher, 17(1), 11-13.

Rani, P. U., & Padmalosani. (2019). Impact of social media on youth. Int. J. Innov. Technol. Explor. Eng., 8(11) Special Issue, 786–787. doi: 10.35940/ijitee.K1138.09811S19

Rehman, A., & Haque, J. (2020). Pakistan’s silent suicide problem. https:// www.dawn.com/news/1494208

Robinson, J., & Thorn, P. (2018). Developing guidelines to help young people communicate safely about suicide on social media: A Delphi study. PLoS One. 13(11), e0206584. The #chatsafe project.

Romer, D. (2010). Adolescent Risk Taking, Impulsivity, and Brain Development: Implications for Prevention. Journal of Developmental Psychology, 52(3), 263–276. doi:10.1002/dev.20442.

Rostam, F. A. (2020). The negative impact of social media on youth. https:// www.academia.edu/41519687/THE_NEGATIVE_IMPACT_OF_ SOCIAL_MEDIA_ON_YOUTH

Sachdev, R. (2013). Impact of The Social Networking Site (SNS) on the Youth of India. A Bird’s Eye View, A Research Paper? (Thesis submitted to Collage of Management Studies), Kanpur (UP), India.

Sakarya, D., Günes¸, C., & Sakarya, A. (2013). Googling suicide: evaluation of websites according to the content associated with suicide. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 24(1), 44-8.

Salman, A. (2005). Alternative Youth Policy in Pakistan. Gujranwala, Pakistan: Bargard Publisher.

Sandars, J., & Morrison, C. (2007). What is the Net Generation? The challenge for future medical education. Med Teach., 29(2-3), 85- 88. doi: 10.1080/01421590601176380. PMID: 17701615.

Semenza, D.C., Meldrum, R.C., Testa, A., & Jackson, D.B. (2021). Sleep duration, depressive symptoms, and digital self-harm among adolescents. Child Adolesc Ment Health. https://doi.org/10.1111/ camh.12457

Shakil, M. (2019). A Qualitative Analysis of Suicides Committed by the Students in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Medical Research, 1, 35-40.

Shekhani, S.S., Perveen, S., & Hashmi, D.S. (2018). Suicide and deliberate self-harm in Pakistan: A scoping review. BMC Psychiatry 18(44). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-017-1586-6

Siddhartha, S., Adil, A.H., Mulla, M., Mulla, M., Sayed, F.R., Singh, K.S., Tripathi, Sowmya, R., & Eusufzai, S.Z. (2020). Usage of Social Media among Undergraduate University Students. European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,7(8),1605-1617.

Siebert, M. D. (2019). The Silent Classroom: The Impact of Smartphones and a Social Studies Teacher’s Response. Soc. Stud., 110 (3), 122–130. doi: 10.1080/00377996.2019.1580666.

Sifferlin, A. (2013). Why Facebook Makes You Feel Bad about Yourself. https://healthland.time.com/2013/01/24/why-facebook-makes-you-feel-bad-about-yourself/

Sin, Y. (2016). Cyber bullying linked to self-harm among the young in Singapore: Study. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/cyber-bullying-linked-to-self-harm-among-the-young-in-singapore-study

Skinner, R. J. (2017). A new study suggests teens are going online to cyberbully themselves, CBC Life. http://www.cbc.ca/life/wellness/ a-new-study-suggests-teens-are-going-online-to-cyberbully-themselves-1.4397856

Steeves, V. (2012). Young Canadians in a Wired World, phase III, talking to Youth and Parents about Life Online. Media Smarts Publishing, 3. www.mediasmarts.ca/researchpolicy

Stevens, F., Jason, R.C., & Arief, B. (2020). Cyber Stalking, Cyber Harassment and Adult Mental Health: A Systematic Review. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 24(6). https://doi.org/10.1089/ cyber.2020.0253

Strasburg, V.C., & Willson, B.J. (2002). Children, Adolescent, and the Media. London / New Delhi: Sage Publication.

Takahashi, T. (2016). Japanese Youth and Mobile Media. Japan: Rikkyo University.

Tayyeba et al. (2021). Clinicians’ Perspectives on Self-Harm in Pakistan: A Qualitative Study. Frontiers in Psychiatry,12(1), 484. URL=https:// www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.607549

Wicaksono, H. (2019). Socio-Economic Status and Social Capital: A Multicausal Analysis of Bullying Among Highschool Students in Karawang, West Java. MASYARAKAT: Jurnal Sosiologi, 113-137. https://scholar.google.com.pk/ scholar?q=The+Annual+Bullying+Survey+2017&hl=en&as_ sdt=0&as_vis=1&oi=scholart

Thomas, M. (2011). Deconstructing Digital Natives: Young People, Technology, and the New Literacies. Routledge.

Topping, A. (2014). Self-harm sites and cyberbullying: the threat to children from web’s dark side. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/ mar/10/self-harm-sites-cyberbullying-suicide-web using makes people rely on search engines when facing unknown issues. PLOS

Varghese, N.E., Santoro, E., Lugo, A., Madrid-Valero, J.J., Ghislandi, S., Torbica, A., & Gallus, S. (2021). The Role of Technology and Social Media Use in Sleep-Onset Difficulties Among Italian Adolescents: Cross-sectional Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 23(1), e20319 doi: 10.2196/20319, PMCID: 7862002

Vogel, E. A., Rose, J. P., Roberts, L. R., & Eckles, K. (2014). Social Comparison, Social Media, and Self-Esteem. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 3, 206.

Volpe et al. (2015). Internet-related psychopathology: clinical phenotypes and perspectives in an evolving field. Journal of Psychopathology, 21, 406-414.

Wang, Y., Wu, L., Luo, L., Zhang, Y., & Dong, G. (2017). Short-term Internet search.

Welsh, P. (2004, June 27). Students’ scars point to emotional pain. USA Today, I lA.

Whitlock, J. L., Powers, J. P., & Eckenrode, J. E. (2006). The virtual cutting edge: Adolescent self-injury and the Internet. Developmental Psychology, 42, 407– 417.

Winterman, D. (2013). Cyber self-harm: Why do people troll themselves online? BBC News Magazine.

Yakeley, J., & Burbridge-James, W. (2018). Psychodynamic approaches to suicide and self-harm. B J Psych Advances, 24(1), 37– 45. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1192/bja.2017.6.

Yang, X., Xin, M., Liu., K., & Böke, B.N. (2020). The impact of internet use frequency on non-suicidal self-injurious behavior and suicidal ideation among Chinese adolescents: an empirical study based on gender perspective. BMC Public Health, 20 (1727), 1-11. https:// doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09866-0.

Zaffar et al. (2015). Facebook Addiction: Relation with Depression, Anxiety, Loneliness and Academic Performance of Pakistani Students. Sci. Int. (Lahore), 27(3), 2469-2475.

Zaheer, L. (2018). New media technologies and Youth in Pakistan. Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan, 55(1),107-114

Published
2022-01-15