• Dr. Malik Muhammad Sheheryar Khan
  • Muhammad Muzammil Ghayas
  • Dr. Sadaf Kashif
Keywords: Servant Leadership, Organizational Commitment, Healthcare Sector


This study seeks to explain the relationship between dimensions of servant leadership and dimensions of organizational commitment in the healthcare sector of Karachi. Two separate instruments were developed for the purpose of data collection and the data were collected at two different points in time. A total of 350 instruments were distributed among the employees of healthcare sector of Karachi. From these 350 respondents, only 300 filled and returned both the instruments. Since, there were three dependent variables in the study, therefore, three separate multiple regression analyses were used as the statistical technique. Results indicated that emotional healing has significant positive relationship with affective commitment. On the hand, altruistic calling and emotional healing have significant positive association with normative commitment. Whereas, emotional healing, wisdom and persuasive mapping have significant association with continuance commitment in the healthcare sector of Karachi.

Author Biographies

Dr. Malik Muhammad Sheheryar Khan
Faculty Member, Higher Colleges of Technology, UAE.
Muhammad Muzammil Ghayas
Lecturer, Iqra University, Pakistan. Email:
Dr. Sadaf Kashif
Assistant Professor, Iqra University, Pakistan, Email:


Al-Asadi, R., Muhammed, S., Abidi, O., & Dzenopoljac, V. (2019). Impact of servant leadership on intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 40(4), 472-484.

Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63(1), 1-18.

Ariani, D. W. (2012). Leader-member exchanges as a mediator of the effect of job satisfaction on affective organizational commitment: An empirical test. International Journal of Management, 29(1), 46.

Avolio, B. J., & Locke, E. E. (2002). Contrasting different philosophies of leader motivation: Altruism versus egoism. The Leadership Quarterly, 13(2), 169-191.

Barbuto Jr, J. E., Fritz, S. M., & Matkin, G. S. (2001). Leaders’ bases of social power and anticipation of targets’ resistance as predictors of transactional and transformational leadership. Psychological Reports, 89(3), 663-666.

Barbuto Jr, J. E., & Wheeler, D. W. (2006). Scale development and construct clarification of servant leadership. Group &Organization Management, 31(3), 300-326.

Burton, L. J., Peachey, W. J., & Wells, J. E. (2017). The role of servant leadership in developing an ethical climate in sport organizations. Journal of Sport Management, 31(3), 229-240.

Cheong, M., Yammarino, F. J., Dionne, S. D., Spain, S. M., & Tsai, C. Y.(2019). A review of the effectiveness of empowering leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 30(1), 34-58.

Deluga, R. J. (1998). Leader-member exchange quality and effectiveness ratings: The role of subordinate-supervisor conscientiousness similarity. Group & Organization Management, 23(2), 189-216.

Dhar, R. L. (2015). Service quality and the training of employees: The mediating role of organizational commitment. Tourism Management, 46, 419-430.

Dinh, J. E., Lord, R. G., Gardner, W. L., Meuser, J. D., Liden, R. C., & Hu, J. (2014). Leadership theory and research in the new millennium: Current theoretical trends and changing perspectives. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(1), 36-62.

Drury, S. L. (2004). Servant leadership and organizational commitment. Servant Leadership Research Roundtable. Retrieved from https://colowebsite. regent. edu/acad/global/publications/sl_proceedings/2004/drury_serva nt_leadership. pdf.

Duchon, D., & Plowman, D. A. (2005). Nurturing the spirit at work:Impact on work unit performance. The Leadership Quarterly,16(5), 807-833.

Eva, N., Robin, M., Sendjaya, S., van Dieren donck, D., & Liden, R. C.(2019). Servant leadership: A systematic review and call forfuture research. The Leadership Quarterly, 30(1), 111-132.

Fairhurst, G. T., & Connaughton, S. L. (2014). Leadership: A communicative perspective. Leadership, 10(1), 7-35.

Gould-Williams, J., & Davies, F. (2005). Using social exchange theory to predict the effects of HRM practice on employee outcomes: An analysis of public sector workers. Public Management Review, 7(1), 1-24.

Graen, G. B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader-member exchange (LMX)theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi domain perspective. Leadership Quarterly, 6(2), 219-247.

Greenleaf, R. K. (1977). Servant leadership: A journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness. New York: Paulist Press.

Groeneveld, S., & Van de Walle, S. (2010). A contingency approach to representative bureaucracy: Power, equal opportunities and diversity. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 76(2), 239-258.

Hannah, S. T., & Avolio, B. J. (2011). Leader character, ethos, and virtue:Individual and collective considerations. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(5), 989-994.

Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D., Camp, S. M., & Sexton, D. L. (2001). Strategic entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial strategies for wealth creation. Strategic Management Journal, 22(6-7), 479-491.

Jamal, M. (2011). Job stress, job performance and organizational commitment in a multinational company: An empirical study in two countries. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(20), 20-29.

Joo, B. K., Byun, S., Jang, S., & Lee, I. (2018). Servant leadership, commitment, and participatory behaviors in Korean Catholic church. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 1-24.

Kool, M., & van Dierendonck, D. (2012). Servant leadership and commitment to change, the mediating role of justice and optimism. Journal of Organizational Change Management.25(3), 422-433.

Langley, A., & Tsoukas, H. (2010). Introducing perspectives on process organization studies. Process, Sensemaking, and Organizing, 1(9), 1-27.

Li, Y., Mehmood, K., Zhang, X., & Crossin, C. M. (2019). A Multilevel Study of Leaders’ Emotional Labor on Servant Leadership and Job Satisfaction. Emotions and Leadership (Research on Emotion in Organizations, 15, 47-67.

Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Liao, C., & Meuser, J. D. (2014). Servant leadership and serving culture: Influence on individual and unit performance. Academy of Management Journal, 57(5), 1434-1452.

Luthans, F., & Avolio, B. J. (2003). Authentic leadership development. Positive Organizational Scholarship, 241, 258.

Mailhot, C., Gagnon, S., Langley, A., & Binette, L. F. (2016). Distributing leadership across people and objects in a collaborative research project. Leadership, 12(1), 53-85.

McCann, J. T., Graves, D., & Cox, L. (2014). Servant leadership, employee satisfaction, and organizational performance in rural community hospitals. International Journal of Business and Management, 9(10), 28.

Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Herscovitch, L., & Topolnytsky, L. (2002).Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: A meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61(1), 20-52.

Mulki, J. P., Jaramillo, J. F., & Locander, W. B. (2008). Effect of ethical climate on turnover intention: Linking attitudinal-and stress theory. Journal of Business Ethics, 78(4), 559-574.

Schneider, S. K., & George, W. M. (2011). Servant leadership versus transformational leadership in voluntary service organizations. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(1), 60-77.

Tourish, D. (2014). Leadership, more or less? A processual, communication perspective on the role of agency in leadership theory. Leadership, 10(1), 79-98.

Van Knippenberg, D., & Sleebos, E. (2006). Organizational identification versus organizational commitment: self-definition, social exchange, and job attitudes. Journal of Organizational Behavior:The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 27(5), 571-584.