TEACHERS’ PERCEPTION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TEACHERS APPRAISAL SYSTEMS IN PRIVATE SCHOOLS OF PAKISTAN

  • Afsheen Fatima Agha
  • Dr. S Khurram Khan Alwi
  • Dr. Mohammad Shaiq
Keywords: Teacher Appraisal, Appraise, Appraiser, Performance, Performance Management

Abstract

There is no unified Teacher Appraisal (TA) system in Private Schools of Pakistan. Therefore, this quantitative study focuses on exploring various systems of TA currently prevailing in private schools in Karachi, the largest city of Pakistan. Data was collected through different sources of teachers’ appraisals prevailed in these schools. It also examines teachers’ perceptions about the purpose of TA. Descriptive survey method was employed to meet the objectives of the research. The survey was conducted in 6 private schools of Karachi selected through random sampling technique. The study included 78 teachers and 12 head teachers of private schools. A questionnaire, comprised of two sections A and B with 4 and 8 items respectively, was developed for data collection. The results revealed that majority of the respondents were already aware of the purpose behind the appraisal in their schools. Surprisingly a significant gap was observed between the perceptions of teachers and the actual purpose of appraisal in their schools. It was also noticed that the number of appraisals during a year varies from a minimum of one time to a maximum of four times during a year. The major sources of appraisal are found to be the classroom observation and assessment based on yearly lesson plans. Since this research does not include the comprehensive exploration of the whole system of appraisal, there is a need to explore the purposes of appraisal in detail including methods of classroom observation and procedures of giving feedback. This research was limited only to the metropolitan city of Pakistan and further inclusion of other big cities can make results more generaliz at the country level.

Author Biographies

Afsheen Fatima Agha
afsheen fatima sabir, a gold medalist, holds an M.Phil degree in education from Greenwich, with experience in curriculum development. She is the founder of the contract-to-Abstract Mathematics Lab, a registered teacher training institute that trains the teachers to use math manipulatives effectively.
Dr. S Khurram Khan Alwi
Dr. S khurram khan alwi has done his Ph.D. from the University of Karachi in 2016. He is currently working as Associate Professor at Greenwich University, Karachi. Dr. Khurram has vast teaching, research and data analysis experience. His email is drkhurram@greenwich.edu.pk
Dr. Mohammad Shaiq
Dr. Mohammad shaiq is Senior Business and Strategy Expert with Propel Consulting Group of Canada and a Visiting Faculty in different universities. Dr. Shaiq is an active researchers and has worked on various national and international projects and has produced many quality papers published in reputed academic and professional journals.

References

Ahmed, A. (2017). Managing knowledge and innovation for business sustainability in Africa. In Managing Knowledge and Innovation for Business Sustainability in Africa (pp. 3-12). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
Ahmad, S., & Shahzad, K. (2011). HRM and employee performance: A case of university teachers of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) in Pakistan. African Journal of Business Management, 5(13), 52495253. Retrieved from: http://www.academicjournals.org/AJBM.
Anjum, A., Yasmeen, K., & Khan, B. (2011). Performance appraisal systems in public sector universities of Pakistan. International journal of human resource studies, 1(1), 41-51. doi: 10.5296/ijhrs.vlil.851.
Aswathappa, K. (2005). Human resource and personnel management: Text and cases. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.
Beerens, D. R. (2000). Evaluating teachers for professional growth. Creating a culture of motivation and learning. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press Inc.
Brown, M. & Benson, J. (2003). Rated to exhaustion? Reaction to performance appraisal processes, Industrial Relations Journal, 34(1), 67-81. Retrieved from: http://www.emeraldinsight.com.
Caruth, D. L., & Handlogten, G. D. (2001). Managing Compensation: A handbook for the perplexed. Westport, CT: Green Wood Publishing Group.
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education. New York Routledge.
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2000). Research methods in education (5th ed.). New York: Routledge.
Everard, K. B., Morris, G., & Wilson, I. (2004). Effective school management. London: Paul Chapman.
Farah, K., O. M. S., & Daud, Y. (2016). Qualitative analysis of the teacher’s performance in private and public sector schools: A developing country’s experience. Educational Research international. 5(4), 33-39.
Fletcher, C. (2001). Performance appraisal and management: the developing research agenda. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74, 473-487.
Iqbal, H. M. (2011). Education in Pakistan: Developmental milestones. Karachi: Paramount Publishing Enterprise.
Khan, M. A. (2015). Exploring teachers’ perceptions about the performance evaluation of teachers in the context of Pakistan. International researchers, 4(1), 3 - 12.
Khan, S. H., Saeed, M., & Fatima, K. (2009). Assessing the Performance of Secondary School Headteachers: A Survey Study. Educational Management Administration &Leadership, 37, 766- 783. doi: 10.1177/1741143209345572.
Kim, T, & Holzer, M. (2016). Public employees and performance appraisal: A study of attendants to employees’ perception of the process. 36(1), 31-56, doi: 10.1177/0734371X14549673
Landy, F. J., & Conte, J. M. (2010). Work in the 21st century: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Marsh, C. (2000). Handbook for beginning teachers (2nd ed.). New South Wales: Pearson Education.
McKirchy, K. (2008). Powerful performance appraisals: How to set expectations and work together to improve performance. Australia: Read How You Want.
Middlewood, D. (2002). Appraisal and performance management. In T. Bush & L. Bell (Eds.). The principles and practice of educational management. (pp.119-134). London: Paul Chapman Publishing.
Monyatsi, P., Steyn, T., & Kamper, G. (2006). Teacher perceptions of the effectiveness of teacher appraisal in Botswana. South African Journal of education, 26(3), 427-441. Retrieved from: http://www.ajol.info.
Mullins, L. J. (1996). Management and organizational behavior. London: Pitman Publishing.
National Commission for Human Development. Universal primary education. Retrieved from http://www.nchd.org.pk/ws/index.php?option=com_content&vie w=article&id=62&It emid=60.
Neely, A. D. (2007). Business performance measurement: Unifying theories and integrating practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Noe, R. A., Hollenbeck, J. R., Gerhart, B., & Wright, P. M. (2010). Human resource management: giving a competitive advantage. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2009). Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS: Executive Summary. Paris: OECD.
Passer, M. W., & Smith, R. E. (2011). Psychology: The science of mind and behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Schleicher, A., & Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (2011). Building a high-quality teaching profession: Lessons from around the world. Paris: OECD.
Shahzad, K., Bashir, S., & Ramay, M. (2008). Impact of HR practices on perceived performance of university teachers in Pakistan. International Review of Business Research Papers,4 (2), 302315. Retrieved from http://bizresearchpapers.com/Paper-21.pdf.
Shahzad K, Rehman KU, Abbas M (2010). HR practices and leadership styles as predictors of employee attitude and behavior: Evidence from Pakistan. European Journal of Social Science, 14(3): 417426. Retrieved from: http://www.eurojournals.com
Stronge, J. H., & Tucker, P. D. (2003). Handbook on teacher evaluation: Assessing and improving performance. Larchmont, N.Y: Eye On Education.
Stronge, J. H. (2006) (Ed.). Evaluating teaching: A guide to current thinking and best practice (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin.
Stronge, J. H., Xu, X., & Leeper, L. M. (2013). Principal Evaluation: Standards, Rubrics, and Tools for Effective Performance. Alexandria, Virginia : ASCD
Usmani, M. A. W. (2008, December). Meta evaluation of a teachers’ evaluation programme using CIPP model. In 2nd International Conference on Assessing Quality in Higher Education Retrieved from http://duhs.academia.edu
Zaman, Z., Khurram, S., Alwi, K., & Shaiq, M. (2019), Relationship of Leadership Style of School Principal with Teachers’ Job Satisfaction: As Perceived by Secondary School Teachers. Global Social Sciences Review (GSSR) Vol. IV, No. I pp: 344 – 353
Zhang, X, F., & Ming Ng, H. (2011). A case study of teacher appraisal in Shanghai, China: In relation to teacher professional development. Asia pacific Education Review., 12, 569-580. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com.
Published
2020-01-15