• Nauman A. Abdullah
Keywords: State of education, educational outcomes, education indicators, Pakistan, Punjab, budgets on education, analytical review


This paper is an analytical review of the literature on educational outcomes and education indicators of Pakistan. The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the outcomes of education in Pakistan. Using a qualitative approach, document analysis was carried out by the researcher to analyze the current state of education in Pakistan. Official government documents were selected and reviewed. Comparison of various education indicators across years and provinces were made. Identification of gaps and reporting of educational outcomes was done as a result. Education spending by different provinces and analysis of budgets over the years was also made to fully comprehend the education state. Policy recommendations were given after making contextual and specific discussions on key education indicators. The paper might be helpful for international readers, research scholars, and education personnel in the country.

Author Biography

Nauman A. Abdullah
Lecturer (Education) at the Virtual University of Pakistan. His research interest includes evaluation studies, foreign aid to education, online and distance learning, and highlighting social issues in the education sector.


Alif Ailaan (2017). Pakistan District Education Rankings 2017. Islamabad: Alif Ailaan. Vi-66 pp. Retrieved from:
Alif Ailaan & SDPI. (2016). Alif Ailaan Pakistan District Education Rankings 2016. Islamabad: Alif Ailaan. vi-109 pp. retrieved from: hments/original/1474368820/Pakistan_District_Education_Ranki ngs_2016_Full_Report.pdf?1474368820.
Bowen, G. A. (2009). Document analysis as a qualitative research method. Qualitative Research Journal, 9(2), 27-40.
Government of Balochistan (2018). The citizens’ budget 2017-18. Retrieved from: file:///Y:/Download%20Chrome/GoB%20Citizen%20 Budget%20English.pdf
Government of Pakistan, Finance Division. (2017-18). Economic Survey of Pakistan 2017-18. Retrieved from survey/chapters_18/10-Education.pdf
Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Finance (2018). PRSP Budgetary Expenditures, External Finance Policy Wings, Finance Division, Islamabad. [Data file]. Retrieved from poverty/PRSP_Expenditure FY_2017_18_Q2.pdf.
Government of Punjab (2018). Citizens budget 2017-18: Inclusive growth for all. Retrieved from: Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 2018). Citizens budget 2017-18. Finance Division. Retrieved from: 2017/08/citizen-budget-urdu_2017-182.pdf Government of Sindh (2018). Budget 2017-18.Finance department. Retrieved from: VOLUME%20I%202017-18/VOLUME%20I.pdf Habib, M. (2013). Education in Pakistan’s Punjab: Outcomes and interventions. The Lahore Journal of Economics. 18(SE), 21-48. Retrieved from: http://www. EconomicsJournal/Journals/Volume%2018/ Issue%20SP/03%20 Salman%20Asim.pdf. Hussain, M., & Kokab, R. U. (2012). Eighteenth amendment in the constitution of Pakistan: success and controversies. Asian Social Science, 8(1), 81-88. Doi: 10.5539/ass.v8n1p81
Institute of Social and Policy Sciences (2017). Public financing of Education in Pakistan. Analysis of federal, provincial and district budgets 2010-11 to 2016-17. Islamabad: ISAPS Publications.
NEAS (2018). National education assessment system. Achievements. Retrieved online from: of%20Activities.html
Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (2017). District wise census results census 2017. 6th population and housing census-2017. Retrieved from:
Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (2016). Pakistan Social and Living standards Measurement Survey (2014-15). Government of Pakistan. Islamabad. Retrieved from: files/pslm/publications/PSLM_2014-15_National-ProvincialDistrict_report.pdf
Pakistan Education Statistics (2016-17). Number of educational institutions by level 1947-48 to 2017-17. National Education Management Information System. Academy of Educational Planning and Management. Ministry of Federal Education and Professional Training. Government of Pakistan. Islamabad. Available at: Education%20 Statistics%202016-17.pdf
Pakistan Institute For Parliamentary Services (2014). National MDGs orientation for parliamentary task forces. Islamabad: Parliament of Pakistan.
Programme Monitoring and Implementation Unit (2018b). Annual performance. Real-time data. Retrieved from: https://open. (Accessed on September 27, 2018).
The Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan 1973. (2010). Eighteenth Amendment Act. Retrieved from: userfiles1/ file/ipcpdfs/ Final%20Report%20of%20Implementation%20 Commission.pdf
Wild, P. J., McMahon, C., Darlington, M., Liu, S. & Culley, S. (2010). A diary study of information needs and document usage in the engineering domain. Design Studies, 31(1), 46-73. DOI: 10.1016/j.destud.2009.06.002
World Bank (2017). Government expenditure on education, total (% of GDP). Retrieved from: SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS?locations=PK