RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTHER’S EDUCATION AND STUDENT’S ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AT UNIVERSITY LEVEL
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate relationship between mothers’ education and students’ academic achievement at university level. On existing literature, it was assumed that mother education would have significant correlation with students’ academic achievement at university level. This study based on correlational research design. All the university students from Karachi city are considering as population. The sample of this study consisted of 152 university students (including 62 male and 90 female students). Further stratification represents 72 from public and 80 from private universities. Data was collected from both public and private universities located in city of Karachi-Pakistan. Descriptive and correlational statistic was applied to measure relationship between mothers’ education and academic achievement of students at university level. Findings of this study showed that mother education has positive significant correlation with academic achievement of university students.
Alexander, K. L. & Entwisle, D. R. (1988). Achievement in the first two years of school: patterns and processes. In W.F. Overton, Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. Oxford: Blackwell.
Andrabi, T., Das, J., Khwaja, A. I., & Zajonc, T. (2009). Do value-added estimates add value? Accounting for learning dynamics. The World Bank.
Andarabi, T., Das, J. & Khwaja, A. (2009). What Did You Do All Day? Maternal Education and Child Outcomes, The World Bank, Development Research Group. Policy Research Working paper5143.
Aslam, M. & Kingdom, G. (2010). Parental Education and Child Health-Understanding the Pathways of Impact in Pakistan, Centre for the study of Africa Economies. Working Paper 2010-16.
Baharudin, R. & Luster, T. (1998). Factors Related to the Quality of the Home Environment and Children’s Achievement. Journal of Family Issues, 19(4), 375-403.
Battle, J. & Lewis, M. (2002). The increasing significance of class: The relative effects of race and socio-economic status on academic achievement. Journal of Poverty, 6(2), 21-35.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA, USA: Harvard University Press. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1986). Ecology of the family as a context for human development: research perspectives. Developmental Psychology,22, 723-742.
Brook-Gunn, J., Klebanov, P. K., & Duncan, G. (1996). Ethnic differences in children’s intelligence scores: Roles of economic deprivation, home environment, and maternal characteristics. Child Development, 67, 396-408.
Brook-Gunn, J. & Duncan, G. (1997). The effects of poverty on children, The Future of Children, 7, 55-71.
Butlin, G. (1999). Determination of Post-secondary Participation. Education Questionnaire Quarterly Review, 5 (3), 9-35.
Campbell, J., Hombo, C., & Mazzeo, J. (1999). NAEP trends in academic progress: Three decades of student performance. Education Statistics Quarterly, 2, 4.
Corwyn, R. F. & Bradley, R.F. (2002). Family Process Mediators of the Relation between SES and Child Outcomes. (Unpublished Manuscripts), University of Arkansas, Little Rock, USA.
Cutrona, C. E., Cole, V., Colangelo, N., Assouline, S. G., & Russell, D.W. (1994). Perceived parental social support and academic achievement: An attachment theory perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 369–378.
Crosnoe, R., Johnson, M. K., & Elder, G. H. (2004). School size and the inter personal side of education: An examination of race/ethnicity and organizational context. Social Science Quarterly, 85(5),1259-1274.
Daouli, J., Demoussis, M., & Giannakopoulos, N. (2010). Mothers, fathers and daughters: Intergenerational transmission of education in Greece. Economics of Education Review, 29(1), 83–93.http://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2009.02.006
Eamon, M.K. (2005). Social-Demographic, School, Neighborhood and Parenting Influences on Academic Achievements of Latino Young Adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescent, 34 (2), 163– 175.
Eccles, J.S., Wigfield, A., & Schiefele, U. (1997). Motivation to succeed. In N. Eisenberg (ed.) Handbook of Child Psychology, volume 3.New York, USA: Wiley.
Eccles, J.S. (2005). Influences of parents’ education on their children’s educational attainments: the role of parent and child perceptions’. London Review of Education, 3(3), 191-204.
Edwards, S. (2002). Creating professional learning communities. Symposium Conducted at the Summer Leadership Academy. Springfield, Missouri: Springfield Public Schools.
Engelhard, G. (1989). Math anxiety, mother’s education, and the mathematics performance of adolescent boys and girls: evidence from the US and Thailand. The Journal of Psychology. http://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1990.10543224
Englund, M., Luckner, E., Amy, W. J. L., Gloria, & Egeland, B. (2004). Children’s Achievement in Early Elementary School: Longitudinal effects of Parental Involvement, Expectations, and Quality ofAssistance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(4), 723-730.
Engin. & Demir, C. (2009). Factors influencing the academic achievement of the Turkish urban poor. International Journal of Educational Development, 29(1), 17–29.
Falaye, F. V. & Adams, B. T. (2008). An assessment of factors influencing Career Decisions of in- School Youths. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 5(3), 222–225.
Fantuzzo, J. & Tighe, E. (2000). A family involvement questionnaire. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(2), 367-376.
Garden, A. (1991). Relationship between burnout and performance. Psychological Reports, 68, 963–977.
Grolnick, W. S. & Slowiaczek, M. L. (1994). Parents’ involvement in children’s schooling: A multidimensional conceptualization and motivational model. Child Development, 65, 237−252.
Gruca, J. M. et al. (1989). Intergenerational effects of parents’ college graduation: Comparative path analyses for four racial-gender groups. American Educational Research Association Meeting(March 27-31), ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED309 688. San Francisco, CA, USA.
Hoff, E. (2003). The specificity of environmental influence: socioeconomic status affects early vocabulary development via maternal speech. Child Development, 74(5), 1368-1378.
Houtenville, A. J., & Conway, K. S. (2008). Parental effort, school resources, and student achievement. Journal of Human resources, 43(2), 437-453.
Krashen, S. (2005). The hard work hypothesis: Is doing your home work enough to overcome the effects of poverty? Multicultural Education, 12(4), 16-19.
LeVine, R. A. (1980). Influences of woman’s schooling on maternal behavior in the third world. Comparative Education Review, 9,78-105.
Mann, M. (1985). Macmilan students encyclopedia of sociology. England: Anchor Brendon Ltd.
Mullis, I. V. S. & Jenkins, L. B. (1990). The reading report card, 1971-88: Trends from the nation’s reading report card (Report No. 19-R-01). Princeton, NJ: National Assessment of Educational Progress, Educational Testing Service.
Muola, J. M. (2010). A Study of the Relationship between Academic Achievement Motivation and Home Environment among Standard Eight Pupils. Educational Research and Reviews, 5(5),213-217.
Shumow, L., Lyutykh, E., & Schmidt, J. A. (2004). Predictors and Outcomes of Parental Involvement with High School Students in Science. The School Community Journal, 21(2), 81-98.
Schneider, B. and Coleman, J. (1993). Parents, their children, and schools. Boulder, CO, USA: Westview Press.
Stevenson, D. & Baker, D. (1987). The family-school relation and the child’s school performance. Child Development, 58, 1348-1357.
Trusty, J. (2000). High educational expectations and low achievement: Stability of educational goals across adolescence. Journal of Educational Research, 93, 356- 366.
Wigfield, A. & Asher, S. R. (1984). Social and motivational influences on reading. In P. D. Pearson, R. Barr, M. L. Kamil and P. Mosenthal(eds), Handbook of Reading Research (Vol. 1), White Plains, NY,USA: Longman.
Wintre, M. G. & Yaffe, M. (2000). First-year students’ adjustment to university life as a function of relationships with parents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 15, 9–37.
Wintre, M. G., Yaffe, M., & Crowley, J. (1995). Perception of parental reciprocity scale (POPRS): Development and validation with adolescents and young adults. Social Development, 4, 129–148.
White, K. R. (1982). The relation between socioeconomic status and academic achievement. Psychological Bulletin, 91,461-481.
Yamamoto, Y. (2007). Unequal beginnings: Socioeconomic differences in Japanese mothers’ support of their children’s early schooling. Dissertation Abstract International, 68(3), 172.
Yamamoto, Y. & Holloway, S. D. (2010). Parental Expectations and Children’s Academic Performance in Sociocultural Context. Educational Psychology Review, 22(3), 189-214.
Young, B. A. & Smith., T. M. (1997). The social context of education. The Condition of Education, 3, 1-27.
Youniss, J. & Smollar, J. (1985). Adolescent relations with mothers, fathers, and friends. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Zhan, M. (2005). Assets, parental expectations and involvement, and children’s educational performance. Children and Youth Services Review, 28, 961-975.